Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889, in Allahabad. He received his early education at home under private tutors. At the age of fifteen, he went to England where he completed two years of study at Harrow before joining Cambridge University. He was later called to the Bar from Inner Temple and returned to India in 1912 where he plunged into politics.
As a student, Nehru had shown interest in not only the struggle for independence but also the movement for liberation from foreign domination that took place in other countries around the world as well like Sinn Fein.
In 1912, he attended the Bankipore Congress as a delegate and became Secretary of the Home Rule League, Allahabad in 1919. In 1916 he had his first meeting with Mahatma Gandhi, who was immensely inspiring to him, and organized the first Kisan March in Pratapgarh District of Uttar Pradesh in 1920. He was twice imprisoned for participating in the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-22.
Though he didn't start being a full time activist until later in life, Pt. Nehru became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee in September 1923. He toured Italy, Switzerland, England, Belgium, Germany and Russia in 1926.
In Belgium, he attended the Congress of Oppressed Nationalities in Brussels as an official delegate of the Indian National Congress. He also attended the tenth anniversary celebrations of the October Socialist Revolution in Moscow in 1927 earlier that same year at the Madras Congress where he had been instrumental in committing the Congress to Independence.
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While leading a procession against the Simon commission, he was lathi-charged on August 29th 1928 and then participated in a meeting and ended up on the Nehru Report on Indian Constitutional Reform, named after his father Motilal Nehru with other signatories who were all attending that particular congress on August 29th which exposed their disdain for colonialism's detrimental effect on India though it wasn't mentioned by name.
The same year he also founded the ‘Independence for India League’ which advocated complete severance of British connection within India which became its General Secretary & later merged with Mahatma Gandhi's non-violent movements to advocate complete severance of British connection as well while writing a newspaper.
In 1929, Pt. Nehru was elected President of the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress. He was imprisoned several times during 1930-35 and completed his autobiography in Almora Jail on February 14, 1935. After release, he flew to Switzerland to see his ailing wife and visited London in February-March, 1936. He also visited Spain in July 1938, when the country was in the throws of the Civil War. Just before the court-break of World War II, he visited China too.
In October 1940, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested for offering an individual Satyagraha protest against India's forced participation in war. He was released along with the other leaders in December 1941, and he moved the historic Quit India resolution at the A.I.C.C. session in Bombay on August 7th, 1942..
In total, he suffered imprisonment nine times and was released in January 1945. After being released from detention in 1945, he organized legal defence for those officers and men of the INA charged with treason and toured around South East Asia before winning a fourth term as President of the Indian National Congress in July 1946, then three more terms from 1951 to 1954.
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