Abraham Lincoln, who went by his birth name without any middle name honoring his paternal grandfather, is known throughout history as a true rags-to-riches story. His perseverance and hard work saw him ascend to the position of 16th President of the United States, making him one of the greatest political leaders in history. His background as a lawyer gave him an advantage when leading the country through the American Civil War; he was renowned for his impeccable integrity and strength of character while performing all of his presidential duties. He was also acknowledged for successfully ending slavery during his rule.
Abraham Lincoln Date of Birth - 12th February 1809
Birthplace of Abraham Lincoln - Sinking Spring Farm, Kentucky, USA.
Profession - Lawyer and American Statesmen
Role In American History - 16th President Of America
Years served as President - 4th March 1861- 15th April 1865
Abraham Lincoln’s Death - 15th April 1865 in Washington DC, USA
Age of Death - 56 years old
Cause of Death - Assassination by gunshot in the head.
In 1809 on 12th February, Abraham Lincoln was born to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln in a log cabin near Hodgenville, Sinking Spring Farm, Kentucky. His name was derived from his grandfather, Captain Abraham Lincoln. His younger brother Thomas died as an infant. Abraham Lincoln was born after his sister Sarah.
A young Thomas Lincoln witnessed Captain Abraham Lincoln’s death after an Indian raid in 1786 when he was eight years old. As soon as Thomas was born, he began working odd jobs to support his family and always believed that physical work was more important than academics. They migrated to many states before settling in Kentucky, including New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.
After losing their land to property title disputes, the family moved to Indiana in 1816. They settled in Hurricane Township, Perry County in an ‘unbroken forest’ in Indiana, mainly because land titles and surveys in Indiana were more reliable, and slaveholding was forbidden.
When Abraham Lincoln was nine years old, his mother died of milk sickness. A loss of an important figure in Abraham's life left him without one. He formed a close relationship with his sister Sarah, who took care of the family. Thomas Lincoln married Sarah Bush Johnston in 1819.
As a result of his lack of interest and involvement in helping the family in his family's farming line, others accused Abraham of being a lazy person. Abraham was close to his stepmother. His stepmother acknowledged his love for reading, writing, and poetry writing, which he was scribbling. His stepmother understood Abraham wasn't interested in physical labor; his interest lay in intellectual pursuits.
A decade later, Abraham lost his sister Sarah on January 20th of 1828, leaving him with a devastating hollowness in his life. The two most important people in his life were his sister and stepmother. They valued him and saw his worth, which gave him confidence and self-belief. Sarah died during childbirth.
Lincoln had some help from itinerant teachers but he mostly self-taught and educated himself. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan, Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, and the King James Bible were among the many books that he read as a child.
In his teenage years, he did household chores and took responsibility for his family. He also took on work outside the home and earned an income. He gave his earnings to his father until he turned 21.
As a kid, he used an axe to help his family, proving he was strong and tall. Moreover, he won a wrestling match with a renowned leader and earned his reputation as an athlete. As a result of another outbreak of milk sickness in March 1830, Abraham and many of his family members moved to Macon County in west Illinois when he was 21. During these years Abraham and his father Thomas became distant due to the lack of commonality. Abraham's education and his father's lack of interest in it left no common ground for conversation.
In 1831, Thomas Lincoln and other family members moved to Coles County, Illinois. On the other hand, Abraham Lincoln moved to New Salem, Illinois, where he began his adult life.
In 1832, while the economy was booming, Lincoln purchased a general store on credit and decided to operate it with a partner, Denton Offutt, in New Salem. The business failed, so Lincoln sold his shares.
While campaigning for navigational improvements on the Sangamon River in March of the same year, he caught the attention of the crowds with his oratory skills.
His loss was due to a lack of connections with the powerful group that influences and swings elections.
When there was a conflict between the U.S. and Native Americans during his campaign, he also considered serving as a Captain during the Black Hawk War led by Black Hawk.
He became a postmaster in New Salem and later served as a County Surveyor. His love for reading remained intact, and he self-taught himself the law using Blackstone's Commentaries.
In 1834, Abraham Lincoln entered the statehouse campaign in Illinois as a member of the Whig Party, one of the two most powerful political parties, and became a successful candidate. As a member of the Illinois House of Representatives for Sangamon County for four terms, he was influential and powerful in two influential political parties: the Whig Party and the Democratic Party.
For the American Colonization Society, he extended support and echoed Henry Clay's support in 1837. As a result of this support, his political career was truly sparked, as it was queer for a man in such a position to support abolishing slavery and emancipating such discrimination. A disciple of Henry Clay, he favored urbanization and economic modernization.
After becoming a member of the Illinois bar, he moved to Springfield to practice law under John T. Stuart, cousin of Mary Todd, the woman he was courting at the time.
As Abraham Lincoln moved to New Salem, he courted different women. However, none of his courtships led to marriage, one lost her life to typhoid fever, and others separated.
On 4th November 1842, Abraham married Mary Todd, whom he had met in Springfield, Illinois in 1839. Her father was a lawyer and businessman, and she came from a wealthy family. As Abraham Lincoln practiced law at the time, the couple bought a house near his office two years later.
Despite his busy schedule, he kept a balance between being a devoted husband and a family man. He was very fond of his children. He had four sons, Robert Todd Lincoln, Edward Baker Lincoln, Willie Lincoln, and Thomas Lincoln. His partners often found his liberal parenting unusual at the time and very perturbing as he often allowed them to accompany him to his law office.
During the Mexican-American War, President James K. Polk attributed the glorification of bloodshed to the Wilmot Proviso, a failed proposal that prohibited slavery on any United States territories in Mexico.
Following his support for Zachary Taylor in the Whig Nomination in 1848, he declined the position of secretary or governor of Oregon Territory, which was offered as a consolation. While contemplating the offer, he thought it would interfere with his legal and political career and his continued practice of law.
He was an excellent lawyer who challenged the judicial system that held the evidence of an eyewitness with unquestionable facts and proofs and led to the ultimate decision by the court favoring him and making his clients acquitted. Over a decade, his success rate was remarkable, earning him the name 'Honest Abe'.
Lincoln delivered a speech in Peoria on 16th October 1854 in which he spoke of his disdain for ingrained slavery and the injustices that resulted from it. As he pointed out, his mentor Henry Clay played a critical role in trying to abolish slavery in the previous years.
With his statement, he nullified the Kansas-Nebraska Act of the Whig Party and was unwilling to compromise. This led to his ascent into politics and as a Republican leader.
During the months leading up to the start of his presidential campaign in 1859, he was practicing law actively and defended the grandson of his opponent, who was accused of murder.
He was favored by many for his ideologies and belief in an inclusive and undivided house. On the ninth and tenth of May, the Illinois Republican State Convention took place in Decatur. Many of Lincoln's supporters rallied for him, and he received his first endorsement.
At the Republican National Convention in Chicago on May 18, he beat candidates such as Seward and Chase Lincoln, and Hannibal Hamlin, a former Democrat, was nominated for vice president.
Abraham was relying on his supporters and the campaign to gain more support for his success. On November 6th, 1861, Abraham won the election with 180 votes and became the 16th president. The lack of support from the South was a foreshadowing of the Civil War to come. His victory was entirely due to his support in the North and West. The lack of support from the South was a sign of the Civil War ahead. He became President of the United States of America on March 4, 1861.
In the early months of his tenure, the American Civil War broke out between the Northern states, who were loyal to the Union and in favor of the United States, and the Southern states, who wanted to withdraw from the organization.
Due to slavery in the territories that weren't yet recognized as states and suffered the slack of it, unlike the other free states, this war was mainly caused by the division in the country.
Amidst a tumultuous time of conflict, Abraham Lincoln remained steadfast in his claim that he had no policy; the events that took place were those which drove his decisions. To keep the war contained, Lincoln took executive action and sought to unite the North under one military strategy. He put a blockade on Confederate posts, increased his power and authority, and worked tirelessly to ensure the war did not become an international affair.
In addition to suspending the habeas corpus practice that was prevalent, he also disbursed funds before Congress approved the appropriation of the funds. As a result of his strategic approach, he won more support from Congress and other Northern States. His combative Secretary of State, William Seward, was a major help to him. Meanwhile, he worked closely with Charles Sumner, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
It went on for a long period from 12 Apr 1861 – 9 May 1865, with Bull Run being the first battle and Palmito Ranch being the last battle. After 4 bloody years of conflict, the Confederate States were defeated by the United States. The states that were still in rebellion were readmitted to the United States. Slavery was abolished nationwide as an institution of injustice.
During his presidency, Abraham Lincoln suffered from melancholy after his two children died, Edward in 1846 and Willie on February 20, 1862, from a fever in the White House.
Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a supporter of slavery, on April 14, 1865, just after 10 p.m. in his box at Ford's Theater in Washington. The wound was on the head, and the gunshot wound was fatal. He was the fourth and last president to be killed.
As she grieved the loss of her husband and sons, Robert Todd Lincoln, the eldest and only son committed his mother Mary to an asylum in 1875.
According to Abraham Lincoln, "Democracy is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people."
Make him gentle with gentle people, and tough with tough people. Give my son the strength to not follow the crowd when everyone is jumping on board. Teach him to listen to all men but also to filter all he hears through a screen of truth, and choose only the good.
Lincoln on the Verge,
Lincoln at Gettysburg
They Knew Lincoln
The loss of a great president left a huge void in American history and the world. The children of the world are still aware of a man who came from nothing and ruled America. The philosophies and ideologies of liberty and modernization still prevail today. It was his revolutionary and groundbreaking role in history to shift the needle and see individuals as equals and fight for justice. His legacy will remain in the minds of all of us forever.
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