In 1921, Albert Einstein won the Nobel Prize for Physics for developing the special and general theories of relativity. He was born on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Wurttemberg, Germany.
Birth Date-14 March 1879
Place of Birth-Ulm, Wurttemberg, Germany
Death -18 April 1955
Place of Death-Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
Education-Federal polytechnic school in Zurich, University of Zurich (Ph.D.)
Spouse(s)-Mileva Maric (married 1903; divorced 1919)
Elsa Lowenthal (married 1919, died in 1936)
Hans Albert Einstein
Awards And Honours-Copley Medal (1925), Nobel Prize (1921)
Subjects of Study-Brownian motion, gravitational wave, light, photon unified field theory
E=mc2 (Mass–energy equivalence)
Theory of Brownian motion
Einstein field equations
Unified field theory
Born on 14 March 1879, Albert Einstein came from a secular, middle-class Jewish family in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. His father, Hermann Einstein, was a featherbed salesman who later ran an electrochemical factory with some success. Albert's mother was Paulina Koch, and he had one sister named Maria. Relocating to Munich, he studied at the Luitpold Gymnasium before the family shifted to Italy, and he continued his schooling at Arau in Switzerland.
Later on, in 1896, Einstein enrolled at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to train as a teacher of physics and mathematics. He obtained his degree in 1901 but failed to secure a teaching post and thus took up the job of a technical assistant at the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his Doctorate.
Einstein would recall two wonders in his early years. He was five years old when he encountered the compass for the first time. He was puzzled by the fact that invisible forces could deflect the needle. At the age of 12, he discovered a book of geometry and called it the sacred little geometry book.
He produced much of his remarkable work at the Swiss Patent Office. In 1908, he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909, he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich and Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague. In 1911, he returned to Zurich for the same position.
In 1914, he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor at the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and lived in Berlin until 1933. In 1940, he became a citizen of the United States and retired in 1945.
A daughter and two sons were born to Albert Einstein and Mileva Maric in 1903. In 1919, they divorced. Albert married his cousin, Elsa Lowenthal, in the same year.
After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement. He was also offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann to create the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
As well as being interested in solving physics problems, he also had a clear view and determination to do so. He saw his critical achievements as just another step towards progressing to the next level. He developed his strategy and could visualize the main stages on his way to his goal.
His theory of relativity emerged from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with those of the electromagnetic field when he began his scientific work.
He worked on classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory. Consequently, he was able to explain the Brownian movement of molecules. As a result of his observations and survey of light with a low radiation density, he established the photon theory of light.
During his time in Berlin, he provided a theory of gravitation and the correct interpretation of the Special theory of relativity. As well as contributing to the problems of radiation theory and statistical mechanics at that time, he published his paper on the general theory of relativity in 1916.
During the 1920s, he developed unified field theories and worked on probabilistic interpretations of quantum theory.
As well as developing a quantum theory of monoatomic gas, he contributed to statistical mechanics and relativistic cosmology.
While he took a different approach to geometrization than most physicists, he continued to work towards unifying the basic concepts of physics.
Several European and American universities awarded him honorary doctorates in science, medicine, and philosophy.
His important works include
Special Theory of Relativity (1905),
Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950),
General Theory of Relativity (1916),
Investigations on the Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and
The Evolution of Physics (1938).
Non-scientific works are
About Zionism (1930),
Why War (1933),
My Philosophy (1934), and
Out of My Later Years (1950)
Barnard Medal (1920)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)
Matteucci Medal (1921)
Copley Medal (1925)
Gold Medal (1926)
Max Planck Medal (1929)
Benjamin Franklin Medal (1935)
Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1942)
Time Person of the Century (1999)
The work of Einstein continues to win Nobel Prizes for successful physicists.
Nobel Prize for the discovery of Bose-Einstein condensates in 1995
Black holes are now known to number in the thousands.
Also, new generations of space satellites have continued to verify the cosmology of Einstein.
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